? Breakthroughs

Breakthroughs

Tour de Cure celebrates 70 cancer breakthroughs

Thanks to the tireless fundraising efforts of our community over the years, Tour de Cure has now funded 563 cancer projects in research, support and prevention.


We are extremely proud to announce that these research projects have led to 70 major cancer breakthroughs. A breakthrough is a significant medical advancement, that increases our understanding of the causes, the treatment or the diagnosis of cancer.

Each breakthrough takes us closer to our goals of Curing cancer, changing lives.

Whilst this is incredible news, there is so much more to do. Please donate to Tour de Cure so we can continue this important work.

With your help we have funded 70 breakthroughs

So what is a breakthrough?

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Tour de Cure has now funded a total of 70 breakthroughs. 

A huge thank you to our supporters who raise the funds to make this possible and to the brilliant researchers, scientists and cancer institutions who are working tirelessly to outsmart cancer and make a better tomorrow for us all.


70. Dr Jessamy Tiffen - Centenary Institute 

Targeting: Antitumour immune responses without inducing liver damage in mice.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 We can potentially use IAAs and ICIs in combination, to treat many different types of cancers that are not currently treatable using ICIs at the moment - Our research has shown, for the first time that it’s possible to counteract the dangerous immunotoxicity induced by these drugs by targeting the gut microbiome.   

Immune agonist antibodies (IAAs) are promising immunotherapies that target receptors on immune cells and trigger potent anti-cancer immune responses, particularly when combined with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs), another type of cancer immunotherapy already in clinical use. The usefulness of IAAs has been severely hampered by serious dose-limiting immunotoxicity, that can cause potentially fatal liver damage, life-threatening cytokine storms (medical conditions in which the immune system is producing too many inflammatory signals) , and colitis (inflammation of the inner lining of the colon).


69. Dr Donia Moujalled - Monash University       

Targeting: Improving outcomes for poor risk acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 

The association between birth order and childhood leukaemia may be modified by paternal age and birth weight - The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a presence of insufficient quantities or small amounts of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukaemia, especially acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Using data from six population-based birth cohorts globally, we studied the association between birth order and childhood leukaemia and whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association.


68. Dr Stephen Blake - South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute   (SAHMRI) and Flinders University

Targeting:  Reducing the toxicity associated with agonistic antibody cancer immunotherapies by targeting the gut microbiota

Experimental evidence suggests that perinatal light imprinting of circadian clocks and systems may affect downstream physiology and cancer risk in later life. (For humans, the predominant circadian stimulus is the daily light-dark cycle).


67. Prof Terence (Terry) Dwyer - International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C) & the Murdock Children's Research Institute    

Targeting:  Birth weight and childhood cancer

In this studies of neonates, we found that DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism in neonatal blood and associated with birthweight.   Observational studies show that birthweight is also associated with later-life health outcomes, including cardio-metabolic and mental health, some cancers and mortality.          (DNA methylation a biological process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription).


66. Prof Terence (Terry) Dwyer - International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C) & the Murdock Children's Research Institute   

Targeting: Birth weight and childhood cancer                                                                                                                                    

Common maternal infections during pregnancy and childhood leukaemia - Previous epidemiological studies have found positive associations between maternal infections and childhood leukaemia; our Research Study concludes that urinary tract and respiratory tract infections during pregnancy may be associated with childhood leukaemia. More studies are needed.           


65. Prof Terence (Terry) Dwyer - International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C) & the Murdock Children's Research Institute  

Targeting: Residential proximity to agriculture been associated with increased risk of childhood cancer.                

Our research examined residential proximity to crops and animals during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukaemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumour’s.                                 

Our Research Highlights:

  • Residence near agriculture has been associated with childhood cancer risk.
  • Majority of Danish National Birth Cohort mothers lived within ½ kilometre of crops.
  • High area of crops within ½ kilometre increased risk of childhood leukaemia.
  • High cattle density was associated with central nervous system tumours.
  • Novel findings - suggests agricultural exposures may increase childhood cancer risk.

64. A/Prof Jeff Holst - University of New South Wales  

Targeting: A new therapy targeting “gluttonous” prostate cancer cells                                                                                

The study has shown that high GMPS (glutamine metabolism pathways) expression and enzymatic function are critical for prostate cancer cell rapid reproduction and tumor growth. Our research shows that this function is an important component of glutamine addiction in prostate cancer cells, also providing a potential companion biomarker. Our research also demonstrates GMPS inhibition have been previously shown to be well tolerated in animal studies, suggesting that GMPS is a generally considered therapeutic target for prostate cancer.


63. Prof Terence (Terry) Dwyer -  International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C )& the Murdock Children's Research Institute   

Targeting: Targeting the gut microbiota to improve the safety and efficacy of agonistic cancer immunotherapies                           

For the first time it’s possible to counteract the dangerous immunotoxicity induced by these drugs by targeting the gut microbiome. We have identified a potential way through a major roadblock that’s stumped scientists and clinicians worldwide and stopped potentially life-saving cancer treatments from progressing into clinical use for over a decade.
Immune agonist antibodies (IAAs) are promising immunotherapies that target co-stimulatory receptors to induce potent anti-tumor immune responses, particularly when combined with checkpoint inhibitors.


62. A/Prof Jeff Holst - University of New South Wales

Targeting: The first targeted therapy against a newly discovered very aggressive subtype of neuroblastoma.       

Our research has identified a novel tumorigenic driver of TERT oncogene-rearranged neuroblastoma (a solid Tumour and TERT oncogene rearrangement, the worst subtype of the disease), have demonstrated that suppression of the tumorigenic driver with the anticancer agent OTX015 induces tumour cell growth inhibition. We have further identified the anticancer agent Carfilzomib as the approved oncology drug exerting the most synergistic anticancer effects with OTX015. Using mouse models of human neuroblastoma, we have confirmed that combination therapy with OTX015 and Carfilzomib synergistically induces TERT oncogene rearranged neuroblastoma cell death and tumour growth inhibition.

We have identified OTX015 and Carfilzomib combination therapy as the first efficacious targeted therapy for children with TERT oncogene-rearranged neuroblastoma for potential clinical translation.                                                                                            


61. Dr Stephen Blake - South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) and Flinders University

Targeting: Improving the efficacy of the novel anti-cancer drug, CBL0137, by combination with HDAC inhibition      

Neuroblastoma is one of the deadliest childhood cancers and is poorly responsive to immunotherapies because of its ability to evade the immune system.

Our research has discovered that combination of two epigenetic modifiers, CBL0137 and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved drug inhibitor Panobinostat, eradicates the aggressive neuroblastoma that develops spontaneously in a clinically relevant, high-risk neuroblastoma mouse mode.


60. A/Prof Tao Liu - Children's Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research

Targeting: Improving the chances for children with high-risk cancers: New study raises bar in personalised medicine.   

Creating Personalised Medicine; Biomarkers which better match anticancer drugs with cancer driver genes – Zero Childhood Cancer, Australia’s first-ever personalised medicine program for children with high-risk or relapsed cancer. When a child’s tumour sample is received, cells from that tumour are grown in cell culture in our laboratories. The Drug Discovery team use high-throughput screening methods to test the response of the cells against more than 120 clinically approved drugs to find which drug, or combination of drugs, are effective and therefore may be useful as a treatment for that child. As well as providing information about which drugs may be useful for treatment, this ‘drug sensitivity testing’ is also generating a large amount of data about the biology of each child’s tumour, providing important insights into what drives the growth of these cancers. These data all contribute towards helping a multidisciplinary team of doctors and scientists develop a treatment plan suited to that individual child, giving them the best possible chance of cure.  


59. Dr Lin Xiao - Children's Cancer Institute Australia (CCIA) & Lowy Cancer Research Centre

Targeting: Birth weight and Birth Order.
Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birth weight is derived primarily from registry and case–control studies. The research aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium.   The results found childhood cancer incidence rises with increasing birthweight. In older children, cancers other than leukaemia are particularly related to high birthweight. 


58. Children's Cancer Institute Australia (CCIA)

Targeting: Medium-throughput Drug Screening of Patient-derived Organoids from Colorectal Peritoneal Metastases to Direct Personalized Therapy.            

Our Research demonstrated the synergistic potential of combining CAR T-cell therapy with smac-mimetics. Taken together, we identified CAR T-cell-derived TNF as a potent antitumor effector, which can be further harnessed by smac-mimetics.


57. Prof Terence (Terry) Dwyer - International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C) & the Murdock Children's Research Institute

Targeting: Medium-throughput Drug Screening of Patient-derived Organoids from Colorectal Peritoneal Metastases to Direct Personalized Therapy. 

Direct Personalized Therapy: Patients with colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases (CRPMs) have limited treatment options and the lowest colorectal cancer survival rates. Our research aimed to determine whether organoid testing could help guide precision treatment for patients with CRPMs as new treatment options are urgently needed and our approach is feasible, reproducible, and can guide novel therapeutic choices,


56. Vignesh Narasimhan - Royal College of Surgery

Targeting: Development of avibodies targeted therapy for the treatment of colorectal, pancreatic and ovarian cancers.

The projected supported the successful development of "agent’s" that can specially deliver payloads to ovarian, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. The agent’s function by binding very strongly and very specifically to a protein called CDCP1 that is enriched on the surface of ovarian, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer cells. When our CDCP1 directed agents are injected into the bloodstream of mouse models of cancer, they circulate until they encounter CDCP1 on the surface of cancer cells. In this way the payload attached to the agent is delivered with high accuracy to tumours and the potential toxic effects of treatments can be reduced or eliminated.


55. Dr Vignesh Narasimhan - Royal College of Surgery

A new therapy targeting “gluttonous” prostate cancer cells

This research has found that a downstream enzyme in glutamine metabolism pathway (GMPS) is increased in prostate cancer and can be independently blocked using a drug to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in the laboratory. The Research shows that high GMPS expression and enzymatic function are critical for prostate cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth. We show that this function is an important component of glutamine addiction in prostate cancer cells, also providing a potential companion biomarker. In addition, GMPS inhibition is generally considered a therapeutic target in prostate cancer.


54. Prof Ruth Ganss - The Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research

Anti-metastatic activity of the tumour vascular targeting agent LIGHT-VTP

The research showed the important application for LIGHT-VTP therapy in preventing metastatic development as well as exerting anti-tumour effects in established metastases.

Highlights:

  • Vascular LIGHT targeting in tumours prevents cancer cell intravasation (Intravasation is the invasion of cancer cells through the basement membrane into a blood or lymphatic vessel)
  • Restored vascular integrity in the pre-metastatic niche reduces extravasation (flow out from the vessel that naturally contains it into the surrounding area)
  • LIGHT-VTP normalises blood vessels in overt metastatic lesions
  • LIGHT-VTP sensitises refractory lung metastasis to checkpoint inhibition

53. Dr Chuck Bailey & Professor John Rasko - Centenary Institute

Structure–function relationships explain CTCF zinc finger mutation

Cancer is characterised by a collection of genetic errors in DNA that accumulate in cells, leading to uncontrolled cell growth. Our study focused on an essential gene in cells called CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), which also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. CTCF is mutated in a quarter of endometrial cancers (A cancer that begins in the lining of the uterus), as well as other solid cancers and in leukaemia. However, the true consequence of these CTCF mutations on the development of cancer is poorly understood. Our research study focussed on a tumour suppress or gene CTCF that is frequently mutated in many cancers. These mutations affect the ‘fingers’ responsible for binding DNA. We observed loss-of-function (CTCF can’t suppress cellular growth), as well as gain-of-function which was unexpected. Our results have implications for any cancers that have CTCF mutations such as a quarter of all endometrial cancers.


52. A/Prof Paul Timpson - Garvan Institute of Medical Research

“Fine-tuned” dual targeting of c-Src/c-MET oncogenic signalling in pancreatic cancer: a new paradigm of personalised medicine.

“Fine-tuned” dual targeting of c-Src/c-MET oncogenic (causing development of a tumour or tumours) signalling in pancreatic cancer: a new paradigm of personalised medicine. - FAK (a molecule) expression and activity increase with disease progression in the KPC mouse model of PDAC and correlate with poor patient prognosis. Research guided us to improve PDAC response to standard-of-care chemotherapy at primary and secondary sites and stratification of PDAC patient samples via Merlin status (suppress the expression of transmembrane receptors in cultured cells) revealed a patient subset with poor prognosis that are likely to respond to FAK priming before chemotherapy.


51. Sean O’Donghue - Garvan Institute of Medical Research

Virtual Reality Cancer Research Expanded on and used for SARS-CoV-2 structural coverage map reveals viral protein assembly, mimicry, and hijacking mechanisms.

Targeting: Virtual Reality based Modelling from Cancer Research to SARS-CoV-2 Virtual Reality Cancer Research Project was used for SARS-CoV-2 structural coverage map reveals viral protein assembly, mimicry, and hijacking mechanisms helping scientists use emerging structural data to understand the mechanisms underlying coronavirus infection.


50. La Trobe University - A/Prof Christine Hawkins / Dr Mark Miles, Bone Cancer

Evaluating Smac mimetic treatment for metastatic osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of cancer that arises in the bones. It is typically diagnosed during adolescence. Osteosarcoma continues to be fatal for over a third of patients, and for most of those whose cancers have spread to other parts of their bodies (typically the lungs). “Smac mimetics” are new anti-cancer drugs that are presently being tested for safety and efficacy in patients with other types of cancer. In this project, we have found that Smac mimetics are more effective at treating osteosarcoma in mice than the best of the currently-used chemotherapy drugs. Excitingly, we found that Smac mimetic treatment can even target osteosarcomas growing in the lungs of mice. 


49. ANZ Breast Cancer Trials Group Ltd Trading As Breast Cancer Trials - Ms Julie Callaghan - Breast Cancer

CAPTURE: Circulating Tumour DNA Assessment of PIK3CA to guide Treatment Response

Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors target cancers with defects in homologous recombination repair by synthetic lethality. New therapies are needed to reduce recurrence in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation-associated early breast cancer.

Article


48. CCIA - Dr Lin Xiao (Prof Michelle Haber & Prof Murray Norris) - Neuroblastoma

CBL0137 and Panobinostat, both of which have been found to be effective against high-risk neuroblastoma 


47. CCIA - A/Prof David Ziegler - DIPG Brain Cancer

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the most aggressive of all childhood cancers. Standard treatment with radiotherapy is only palliative and single drug chemotherapy has been found ineffective. This project will determine the therapeutic e cacy of a sequential and multi-modal and multi-targeted treatment in pre-clinical models of DIPG. Positive results will allow for immediate clinical application in future clinical trials.


46. CCIA - Dr Maria Tsoli - DIPG Brain Cancer

Exploring the use of nanomedicine to treat DIPG - A Trojan Horse Strategy Against Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma
(DIPG): Using EGFR-Targeted Minicells To Deliver Chemotherapeutic Agents

DIPG is the most aggressive of all childhood cancers. Standard treatment with radiotherapy is only palliative and chemotherapy has been ineffective due to the difficulty of the drugs to penetrate the brain. This project will determine the pre -clinical efficacy of chemotherapeutic agentsusing a novel targeted delivery method.Positive results will allow forim mediate clinical application in anongoing clinical trial (ECRESTStudy).


45. UNSW – John Kokkinos and A/Prof Phoebe Philips - Pancreatic Cancer

Human pancreatic cancer model offers new opportunities for testing drugs.

 
UNSW scientists have grown human pancreatic cancer tumours in the lab – their model is the first of its kind, with important future clinical implications. The multi-disciplinary team has successfully grown a complete human tumour model in a petri dish.

Crucially, the team’s model stays intact for 12 days and offers a complete view of the tumour – an approach that has great potential for testing the effect of different drugs on the cancer, and offering personalised medicine approaches to patients down the track.

Article here


44. Garvan - K. Wang and Professor Paul Timpson - Pancreatic Cancer

Inhibition of PAK1 suppresses pancreatic cancer by stimulation of anti-tumour immunity through down-regulation of PD-L1

The anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids including CBD (Cannabidiol) and THC ((−)-trans-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol) have been reported in the case of pancreatic cancer (PC). Using cell lines and mouse models of PC, the effects of CBD and THC on cancer growth, the interaction between PC cells and a stromal cell, namely pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), and the mechanism(s)involved were determined by cell-based assays and mouse studyin vivo. CBD and THC inhibited the proliferation of PC, PSC, and PSC-stimulated PC cells. They also suppressed pancreatic tumour growth in mice. 


43. Flinders Medical Centre Foundation – Dr. Damian Hussy - Oesophageal Cancer

MicroRNA Profiling in Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines and Patient Serum Samples Reveals a role for miR-451a in Radiation resistance 


42. Macquarie University – Professor Gilles Guillemin - Breast Cancer

Differential kynurenine pathway metabolism in highly metastatic aggressive breast cancer subtypes: beyond IDO1-induced immunosuppression.

https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13058-020-01351-1


41. CCIA – Associate Professors Paul Ekert, Mark Cowley, and David Ziegler

Whole genome, transcriptome and methylome profiling enhances actionable target discovery in high-risk pediatric cancer | Nature Medicine

https://rdcu.be/b76h9


40. Garvan – D. Neil Watkins - Lung Cancer

Deep multi-region whole-genome sequencing reveals heterogeneity and gene-by-environment interactions in treatment-naive, metastatic lung cancer

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41388-018-0536-1


39. CCIA - Michelle Haber, Murray Norris, Glenn Marshall, David Ziegler - Neuroblastoma

Inhibition of polyamine synthesis and uptake reduces tumor progression and prolongs survival in mouse models of neuroblastoma

https://ccia.org.au/australian-scientists-discover-a-potential-way-to-treat-and-prevent-cancer-in-children-with-neuroblastoma/


38. CCIA – Paul Timpson, Phoebe Phillips - Pancreatic Cancer

CAF hierarchy driven by pancreatic cancer cell p53-status creates a pro-metastatic and chemoresistant environment via perlecan

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-10968-6


37. Foundation for Surgery/ Peter MacCallum – Toan Pham - Cancer Surgery

Immunotherapy for Solid Tumors: A Review

 

https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6966-8


36. Foundation for Surgery/Peter MacCallum – Toan Pham - Cancer Surgery

TetMYB vaccine has shown benefit in a prophylactic and therapeutic setting in the management of colonic adenoma in a murine model. This will form the basis for a future clinical trial to prevent and treat colonic adenomatous polyps.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11605-018-4060-y


35. CCIA - Orazio Vittorio and Maria Kavallaris- All Tumours

Intratumoral Copper Modulates PD-L1 Expression and Influences Tumor Immune Evasion

https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2020/08/14/0008-5472.CAN-20-0471


34. CCIA - David Ziegler - Glioma

Radical new treatment for currently uncurable DIPG in Children

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41416-018-0251-2


33. CCIA - Jenny Y Wang - Acute Myeloid leukemia

Targeting leukaemia stem cells: the path towards the cure of poor-prognosis leukaemia

https://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(20)30264-6

 


32. CCIA - Rosemary Sutton - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Persistent MRD before and after allogeneic BMT predicts relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/bjh.13142


31. CCIA - Glenn Marshall - High-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

 High-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission treated with novel intensive chemotherapy and allogeneric transplantation.

https://www.nature.com/articles/leu201344


30. CCIA - Rosemary Sutton, Tobias Trahir - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Enrichment of atypical hyperdiploidy and IKZF1 deletions detected by SNP-mircorarray in high-risk Australian AIEOP-BFM B-cell acute.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2020.01.051


29. CCIA - J R Lynch

Gaq signaling is required for the maintenance of MLL-AF9-induced acute myeloid leukemia.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26859074/


28. CCIA - Tsoli, M., Ziegler, D.S., et.al. Glioma in Children

International experience in the development of patient-derived xenograft models of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
Defuse intrinsic pontine glioma is the most aggressive form of high-grade glioma in children with no effective therapies. There have been no improvements in survival in part due poor understanding of underlying biology, and lack of representative in vitro and in vivo models. Recently, it has been found feasible to use both biopsy and autopsy tumours to generate cultures and xenograft models. Conclusion:
This multi-centre study provides valuable information on the success rate of establishing patient-derived pre-clinical models of DIPG. The results can lead to further optimization of DIPG model development and ultimately assist in the investigation of new therapies for this aggressive paediatric brain tumor.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-018-03038-2  


27. CCIA - M. Tsoli, D. Ziegler - High risk pediatric cancer

Integration of genomics, high throughput drug screening, and personalized xenograft models as a novel precision medicine paradigm for high risk pediatric cancer.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F15384047.2018.1491498


26. CCIA David Ziegler - Glioma

Brief Report: Potent clinical and radiological response to larotrectinib in TRK fusion-driven high-grade glioma

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0251-2  


25. Professor John Rasko, Dr Amy Marshall, Dr Chuck Bailey - Impact of Genetic Alterations on Endometrial Cancer

Research at the Gene & Stem Cell Therapy Program, Centenary Institute, Sydney has led to new insights into the effect of genetic alterations and the impact on patients suffering from endometrial (or uterine) cancer. The research found that genetic alterations in a specific gene (the tumour suppressor gene CTCF) occur in one-fifth of women with endometrial cancers. Their data proves that loss of activity of this essential genome organising protein can lead to a life-threatening production of tumours.


24. Dr Glenn Guerra - Salvage Surgery for Locoregional Failure in Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Anal squamous carcinoma is a rare cancer with a high cure rate, making the research into the treatment of locorregional failure of surgical relapse difficult to assess. These surgical procedures are followed in the event that primary treatment (typically chemotherapy) fails. Most patients can be saved, with a positive resection margin being a strong predictor of further relapse and poor outcome.


23. Dr Rosemary Sutton, Dr Toby Trahair - identifying high-risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia relapse

Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many immature lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).  Leukaemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. ALL is the most common cancer found in children and usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. The researchers conclude that the incorporation of a risk score system will enable better identification of newly diagnosed ALL patients who may have therapy reduced, and of those high-risk patients in need of early intensification of therapy to prevent relapse.


Dr Daniel Speidel - how RUNX1 contributes to the success of radiation and chemotherapy

We report a novel function of one of the most prominent leukaemia-associated genes. Our findings show how RUNX1 contributes to the success of radiation and chemotherapy and explain why most leukaemia patients with RUNX1-mutations are resistant to chemotherapy. Thereby, our results provide the basis to overcome therapy resistance in leukaemia.


Murdoch Children's Research Institute – Birth weight and childhood cancer

Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birth weight is derived primarily from registry and case–control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium.


Dr Daniel Speidel – Mutations in SIPA1L3

This paper reports mutations in a poorly characterised gene to be responsible for congenital eye disease (blindness) and clarifies their functional consequences. This paper reports that mutations in this gene are also associated with cancer.


Dr Daniel Speidel – Tumour Suppression

In this paper they describe a completely unexpected function of a protein that many cancers produce in abnormally high levels. Although previously described as cancer-promoting they report that depending on the exact circumstances the same protein can also enhance tumour suppression.


Dr Daniel Speidel – Tumour Suppression

The tumour suppressor p53 is a central player in cellular DNA damage responses and one of the most extensively studied genes in cancer research. In this review, Dr Speidel summarises current knowledge on p53-controlled DNA damage responses, commenting also on recent controversially discussed findings.


Dr Daniel Speidel – Cellular Stress Responses

In response to hazardous agents, cells activate a range of complicated signalling pathways. These so-called cellular stress responses are pivotal for tumour suppression and also the success of radio- and chemotherapy. The EBook features 12 articles on cellular stress responses (review papers as well as original research articles presenting new findings) written by leading scientists in the field.


Dr Tracy Putoczki and Dr Chen Chen Jiang – Gastrointestinal cancers

In their exploration of the Cytokine IL-11, these researchers exposed a potential target for future cancer treatments that will assist in the suppression of human gastrointestinal tumours.


The Garvan Institute of Medical Research – Ovarian cancer research

This study focused on the protein ZNF300P1 and it's behaviour/functions within Ovarian Cancer tissue. The findings revealed that it plays an important role in regulating key cell cycles and cell motility networks in human ovarian surface epithelial cells. It also may play a role in promoting metastasis in ovarian cancer cells.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Cutting Edge

This work shows the importance of a surface protein in activating an immune cell known as a T cell that is very important in suppressing cancer development.


Dr Christopher J. Chan - Regulation of NK Cell functions

This is the first work describing the function of a novel surface protein that is highly expressed in the immune system. We characterised where this protein is found and which immunological processes it is involved in.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Surface protein importance

This is the first work describing the function of a novel surface protein that is highly expressed in the immune system. Dr Chan and his team characterised where this protein is found and which immunological processes it is involved in.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Different signals can affect the function of the NK cells

This work shows how different signals can affect the function of NK cells and how these could be used therapeutically to tune these cells to have specific functions in particular disease contexts.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Biology & function of a protein family

This is a review based on my work and others that summarises the biology and function of a protein family highly expressed in the immune system that has become very attractive for therapeutic targeting in cancer.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Detecting cancer cells early

This work reports a novel mechanism by which the immune system can sense cellular dysfunction that can lead to cancer development at a very early stage, outlining the importance of the immune system in the early detection of cancer cells.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Interaction of two immune proteins

This work characterises the novel interaction of two immune proteins and their role in regulating the function of NK cells.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Importance of immune system

This work outlines that the immune system is important in the efficacy of a drug that is able to target genetic abnormalities in lymphoma.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Contribution of a surface protein

The work outlines the contribution of a surface protein that is expressed on immune cells to progression of Graft versus Host Disease.


Dr Christopher J. Chan – Cellular reactions in the field of immunology

This is a review based on Dr Chan's work and others, which outlines how a particular immune cell called an NK cell is able to recognise and suppress cancer. Also, it outlines how to target these cells therapeutically for the treatment of cancer.


Dr Bryan Day – Glioblastoma

This article explores ways to target the protein EphA3 which is found in large amounts in aggressive, adult Glioblastoma (a highly invasive Brain Cancer) and negatively affects survival rates. Therapies targeting this molecule significantly slow tumour progression. The information revealed in this research will improve survival rates in the future for many adult patients facing a Glioblastoma diagnosis.


Dr. Charles Bailey – Targeted Gene Therapy Research

Normal white blood cells make use of a molecular ‘trash can’ to control many aspects of our body’s cellular defences. More than a hundred thousand white blood cells per second are produced in everyone's body and their maturation must be carefully controlled. This article unveiled how commonly occurring stretches of DNA that interrupt genes (known as introns) play a crucial role in controlling gene expression.


Professor Michelle Haber & Dr Glenn Marshall

Every year, 950 Australian children and adolescents are diagnosed with cancer and on average every week around 3 die of cancer. This article details the highly successful works of the Children's Cancer Institute (CCIA), taking research and technologies into several different cancer types into viable treatments for children affected by cancer. These successes were achieved in collaboration with the Kids Cancer Centre (KCC) at Sydney Children's Hospital.


1. Dr Paul Timpson – the Garvan Institute

This article details the work of funded scientists Dr. Paul Timpson and company at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research uncovering a promising new approach to treating pancreatic cancer, by targeting the tissue around the tumour to make it ‘softer’ and more responsive to chemotherapy. 



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